Superconductor is a adjective which is applied to those materials that, when cooled, cease to exert resistance to the passage of electric current. In this way, at a certain temperature, the material becomes a perfect type electric conductor .
The superconductivity Therefore, it is a property of some materials. The substances that can act as superconductors are those that, under specific conditions, can conduct the current without energy loss do not exercise resistance .
The scientist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered in 1911 , that metallic conductors lose resistivity when the temperature . When descending below a temperature rated as review , the resistance is completely canceled. In this way, the electric current can flow indefinitely through the superconductor even without the action of a power supply.
It is important to establish that superconducting materials can be classified according to several relevant criteria, such as the following:
-If we consider their material, we can say that there are four major groups: ceramics, alloys, those with carbon structures and pure elements.
-Departing from what your physical behavior is, you can determine that there are two kinds of superconductors: those of type I, which have the particularity of being able to pass from the superconducting state to normal in a very fast way, and those of type II. The latter are those that have, as it is called by scientists, two critical magnetic fields.
-Depending on what is its critical temperature, there are two modalities: those of high temperature, if it is above 77k, and those of low temperature, which are characterized by having it below those already mentioned 77k.
-Finally, another existing classification is the one based on the theory that comes to explain them and which determines that they can be conventional, whose origins are in the phonons, and unconventional, when the aforementioned origin they have is other than those mentioned .
He aluminum and the tin They are two examples of superconducting materials. It is common for materials to cool with liquid helium so that they can reach the mentioned critical temperature. When the material is transformed into a superconductor, it can be used for the development of circuits and electromagnets .
Currently, among the most useful and interesting applications given to the aforementioned superconducting materials, the following stand out:
- Within the medical field they have been used to solve aneurysms without the need for surgery, to remove tumors and even to correct arteries that had suffered some damage.
-In the scientific field, they have been used and are still used to undertake studies of plant growth.
In the future, superconductors are expected to be used to build electric motors and to create equipment that allows storage Energy , among other applications.
It should be noted, finally, that it is known as high temperature superconductors to materials that have a critical temperature higher than the temperature of boiling what does he have nitrogen or that do not comply with the BCS theory (developed in 1957 to explain superconductivity).