Thunderbolt , originating in the Latin word radius, is the denomination that receives the line born where a certain type of energy is produced and that extends in the same direction to where it radiates.
According to the kind of Energy , it is possible to distinguish between different rays. The gamma rays , in this sense, they are formed by waves that are generated from the annihilation of particles or through a nuclear transition.
This ionizing radiation , which has a great penetration power and a high energy level, is formed by photons, whose energy is estimated in a unit known as megaelectronvolts or MeV . Due to their properties , gamma rays can cause significant alterations in cell nuclei.
Gamma rays can be generated through various processes or occur spontaneously in space. In the latter case, when they arise from the nuclei of an active galaxy or from a supernova , the rays do not reach the land since they are absorbed by the atmosphere. However, they can be observed by telescopes located in space.
The most frequent use of gamma rays is found in the sterilization . It is possible to use this radiation to eliminate bacteria from food or to sterilize the instruments used in medicine .
Gamma rays are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases and disorders Since these rays can change the structure of cells and cause cancer, their use requires great control.
Gamma ray outbreaks
Also called simply by its acronym BRG, or its equivalent in English, GRB, gamma ray flares are flashes of this type of rays that are associated with explosions of considerable energy in galaxies that are at great distances. It is the most luminous electromagnetic events that take place in outer space. With respect to its duration, it can be as short as a few nanoseconds or reach a few hours; The normal thing, on the other hand, is that it does not exceed a few seconds.
Often gamma-ray bursts precede a residual luminescence, whose duration is wide and has a radiation at longer wavelengths (radiofrequency, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, visible light and X-rays). Some specialists say that gamma ray outbreaks are usually light beams of intense radiation whose rays are oriented in parallel (this is technically called collimated light). In addition, they are believed to be produced by a supernova.
A supernova is understood as a stellar explosion that sometimes manifests itself very clearly in regions of the celestial sphere in which observers had not detected any body in particular.
Gamma ray astronomy
The study of the universe is known as gamma ray astronomy by means of this type of rays, defined in previous paragraphs. Since the atmosphere of our planet does not allow gamma radiation, the first astronomers who observed the gamma photons needed rocket and probe balloons; at that time, they could not make very extensive observations, something that has changed completely with the creation of artificial satellites .
To detect this type of radiation it is necessary to use dispositives large (similar to the Geiser counter, an instrument for measuring radioactivity levels), whose manufacture involves the assembly of metal plates of considerable thickness.
Gamma rays usually arise from black holes, high-speed collisions, particle jets or supernova explosions, among others phenomena of similar magnitude, and for this reason some sources refer to gamma ray astronomy using the name of astronomy of the violent universe.