DNA is a initials corresponding to deoxyribonucleic acid : the biopolymer that houses the data for the synthesis of proteins and that composes the genetic type material that cells have.
It can be said that DNA presents the Genetic information what do the living beings to work. This nucleic acid also allows data to be transmitted through the heritage .
The DNA is usually compared with a code , since it acts as a guide with the instructions for the construction of the rest of the cell components. Each segment of DNA that contains this data is called gen .
Being a biopolymer, DNA is made up of multiple simple units that are related to each other, forming a chain. The different elements that make up the DNA are the nucleotides , formed in turn by a Phosphate group , a nitrogen base and a sugar .
Nucleotides are distinguished from each other according to the nitrogen base, which can be the guanine , the cytosine , the thymine wave adenine . According to how these bases are ordered in the chain of DNA, the coding of genetic data occurs.
The use of the data that houses the DNA requires that the information be copied first in the ribonucleic acid (he RNA ). Copying is known as transcription. RNA molecules are analyzed in the nucleus of cells and then leave the cytoplasm for use.
Scientific research on DNA allows the development of Medical treatments and the modification of microorganisms, among many other issues.
There are various types of diseases DNA related. It is the so-called genetic diseases , that is, of those that take place as a result of some DNA alteration. In general, they do not occur because they have acquired parental characters, that is, they are not related to the genes of the parents.
Within this group we can find the following:
* monogenic diseases : are those that occur because of different alterations or mutations of DNA only in one gene;
* polygenic diseases : they occur as a result of mutations in more than one gene, usually of several chromosomes, in combination with various environmental factors;
* chromosomal diseases : occur as a result of certain chromosome alterations. One of the best known at the popular level is the Down's Syndrome , characterized by the existence of a copy of more than chromosome 21;
* mitochondrial diseases : These disorders are generated when the mitochondrial DNA undergoes an alteration, and can cause problems in several parts of the body, since the mitochondria of the human body have their own DNA. In this case, only women can transfer the diseases.
One of the most common genetic diseases is the cystic fibrosis , which usually affects white individuals especially. In broad strokes, it is characterized by the absence of a certain protein and for the impossibility that the organism shows to restrict the balance of the chloride. Among its symptoms are lung infections and reproductive disorders. One of its peculiarities is that It only takes place when both parents are carriers .
On the other hand is the huntington's disease (which usually appears simply with its acronym, HEY). It causes the cells of the central nervous system and the brain to degenerate , with terrible consequences, such as difficulties in swallowing, inability to control body movement, changes in behavior, memory loss, and difficulty in maintaining balance and expressing oneself.
The Duchenne muscular dystrophy It is another disease related to DNA. It usually manifests before 6 years of age, and is characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue, first in the legs and then in the rest of the body , until leaving those affected prostrate in a wheelchair at the beginning of their adolescence.